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Нестандартные синтаксические структуры

1. Информанты используют многочисленные НМСФ, представленные предикатными структурами времени, вида, перфекта, которые не соответствуют стандартным моделям согласования видовременных форм в конкретном контексте, например:

I have started to gather the information about my future research paper not so long ago. (З.Б.)

I have graduated from economics faculty 4 years ago and then worked in this area. (Д.Ц.)

I have studied economics and I have studed in English when I was in Greece. (Д.М.)

I like reading in English. The last book that I have read was called “The history of colonization”. Also I read in Greek language. (Д.М.)

Информанты переносят в свою англоязычную речь привычное в русском языке свободное употребление и смешение видо-временных форм:

I will be an oil-and-gas engineer and lam easy-going person and now I also took part in many business projects. (Б.К.)

But I've put a considerably greater effort in learning when I realized that I want to be a programmer, because seriously, how can you call yourselfany decent programmer if you didn't know English. (И. П.)

Во всех интервью, независимо от общего уровня владения ПОАЛ Ф, преобладают высказывания, первая часть которых отражает действие или состояние в определенный момент или период прошлого, а вторая часть, в сознании респондентов, выходит за пределы этого момента или периода, например:

I have studied law at the University when I was a student and have serious intentions to be a lawyer. (В.П.)

My research theme was financial security. I study finance questions in trade organizations but I have notread in English, usually I used Russian. (Д.Г.)

I said to my professor that I want to study Crimean elite. (O.E.)

I have read a lot in English during my studying at school, and also I studied French. (E.C.)

My research is about B. Karmal. He was leader in Afganistan in 1979 but in 1981 he will be killed. (K.A.)

Sometimes I had doubts if that I can write my dissertation. (K.A.)

And I lived in multicultural environment when I have studied in Belgium and Sweden. (Ю.Ш.)

When I went to England I was afraid if lam able to live far from my country and family. (Ю.Ш.)

Значительно реже встречаются случаи, когда вторая часть высказывания сообщает о действии или состоянии в определенный момент или период в прошлом, а первая часть вводит это сообщение с помощью глаголов to realize, to think, to understand, например:

I specialized as astrophysicist, I understand that I wanted to be an astrophysicist when at school. (Л.Х.)

При практически полном отсутствии форм Past Perfect в дискурсе всех респондентов, наблюдается широкая генерализация форм Present Perfect в дискурсе тех информантов, самооценка которых предполагает более высокий уровень владения ПОАЛФ. Видимо, это связано с тем, что в их лингвистическом сознании сложилось представление о необходимости варьирования глагольных форм для отражения разных временных планов описываемого события, например:

As it has appeared in my field all new articles were published in English. (Л .X.)

It has been 2 years since I start teaching in our university. (K.A.)

Infour month after the semester has started the email came that Germanjournal has published my article about behaviour of heavy metals in the soils. (A. A.)

Генерализация Present Perfect охватывает те случаи, когда оба действия содержат элемент предшествования моменту речи, хотя описываемое событие объективно происходит в одном прошлом временном плане, например:

Му scientific work has taken all time as I have studied Oriental philosophy. (С.Э.)

Аналогичная генерализация Present Perfect имеет место в формах наклонения (Suppositional Mood), например:

Professor G. insisted that we have written our diplomas in English and that we have made reports in international conference. (С.Э.)

Генерализация форм перфектного инфинитива наблюдается после модальных глаголов, например:

When we go to English-speaking countries like Cyprus we should have spoken English but often I can’t have found words.

I must have answered in English if I cannot have spoken in German. (Л .Д.)

2. В так называемых экзистенциальных предложениях вводные there is/there was сочетаются с последующими существительными во множественном числе, например:

Му theme is “Transportation logistics in Crimean tourism management”. There is not many articles in English in my field. (О.Л.)

There is classical courses which you can find in all philosophical departments. (O.T.)

There is many situations where I use different languages. For example, my grandmother is Ukrainian. So I use Ukrainian with her. (Ж.Ч.)

There's hundreds of people on the waiting list. (Ю.Э.)

P. Кверк отмечает, что такие примеры, как There's some people that I'd like you to meet, допустимы и находятся на границе стандартного и нестандартного [Quirk et al 1985, Р. 756, 1407] также, как сокращенная форма There’s many people there, isn't it? в разделительном вопросе.

Также наблюдается использование was с подлежащим во множественном числе, и, наоборот, использование were с подлежащим в единственном числе, например: I studied Heidegger’s theory of language and Heidegger and Derrida was useful for my research. (Н.П.)

Itwasn 'tthe bad teacher, it was the pupils who did not want to study English. (M.T.)

It weren'tgoing to be built. (M.T.)

3. НМСФ isn't it в разделительных вопросах используется независимо от числа подлежащего и времени, наклонения, вида глагола-сказуемого, как запрос подтверждения:

We 'lljust have to wait and see, isn't it? (Я.Ф.)

You know I wasn'tgoing to write dissertation before, isn't it? (Л.X.)

Vernadski started first as laboratory assistant, isn't it? (Б.Р.)

4. НМСФ for to + инфинитив заменяет структуру to + инфинитив в обстоятельствах цели, например:

I wanted to write to George Lakoff for to send me his book “Metaphore we live by”. (Л.С.)

5. Зафиксировано преимущественное употребление инфинитива, а не герундия в глагольных сказуемых, после глаголов to begin, to start, to continue, to hate, to love, например:

I began to research optical fibers when I wrote my Master’s thesis. (Д.З.)

Psychology continues to help me in relationships with people, in business and even to find a right place in the life. (M.M.)

/ love to invite students from other countries. (M.M.)

  • 6. Нестандартная структура словосочетаний и предложений.
  • а) Интерференция русского языка проявляется в выборе или отсутствии предлогов, например:

I would like to open the best solutions about economic problems. (Д.Г.)

My typical day depends of mv work. (И. Ш.)

The subject of my scientific study is devoted of the nature and conditions of military service. (M. H.)

In our country study on women in the Armed Forces in modern conditions for several reasons not received proper developmant and evaluation. (M.H.)

However, the system of psychological support professional work of military women are now missing. (M.H.)

On other days I prefer walking on streets and going in mountains. (С.Д.)

Iam interested economics of our country. (Д.Г.)

I mix Russian and English languages only mv studying. (Р.Щ.)

I have read a lot Enslish. I have read a lot books. (Р.Щ.)

In my opinion, the institute's training system better school because it produces in man skills of independent work . (P. Щ.)

б) Наблюдается как союзное, так и бессоюзное соединение компонентов сложносочиненных и сложноподчиненных предложений. Например:

I changed ту attitude to research _/ learned how to be hard-working, and I have read a little in English because I read a lot in Russian it is necessary for my research. (A.A.)

On the fourth of October we had candidate exam _ Professor N. agreed to be my scientific advisor. (M. П.)

Регулярно используется бессоюзное соединение придаточных после глаголов to think, to say, to know, например:

You think I does it? (Do you think that I have done it?) (E.C.)

Teachers sav the knowledge of the development of the individual pupil will allow to carry out activities for the class effectively. (M.E.)

I know he was in Portugal Research Internship. (С.Д.)

Имеют место взаимозамены союзных слов who, which, that, what и др., например:

The professor which... (С.Ф.)

I took part in 3-months internship who... (B.3.)

I have studied mathematical analysis with Professor N that advised... (В. 3.) Biological disciplines what we study in bniochemistry department... (O.P.) ... in case there's a bit of novelty what you can discover. (С.Э.)

... things what they are telling us...(C.J.)

Союзное слово as используется вместо that, например:

... the man as told me about it... (O.P.)

...walked about the classroom... seeing as students wouldn't cheat. (O.P.) в) Постоянно наблюдается прямой порядок слов и потеря вспомогательного глагола do в специальных и общих вопросах, например: What you are doing? (C.H.)

Why they moved? (С.Г.)

You want to do it by yourself? (C.H.)

But how I know the right way ? How I can guess that it is the best way for me? (T.H.)

 
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